Depressive symptoms in university freshmen: Longitudinal relations with contingent self-esteem and level of self-esteem
The present study tested longitudinal relations between depressive symptoms and two aspects of self-esteem in university freshmen: (1) students’ level of self-esteem, and (2) the degree to which students’ self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular standards (i.e., contingent self-esteem). Using three-wave longitudinal data (N = 494), possible vulnerability as well as scar effects were tested. Results showed that both aspects of self-esteem increased the vulnerability for depressive symptoms. However, contingent self-esteem only predicted higher subsequent levels of depressive symptoms when not controlling for self-esteem level. In contrast, level of self-esteem was a unique predictor for depressive symptoms.
Wouters, S., Duriez, B., Luyckx, K., Klimstra, T., Colpin, H., Soenens, B., & Verschueren, K. (2013). Depressive symptoms in university freshmen: Longitudinal relations with contingent self-esteem and level of self-esteem. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 356-363.