The relationship between national identification and immigrant threat: The mediating role of citizenship representations
The present study investigated the role of citizenship representations as potential mediators or moderators of the relationship between national identification and perceived threat posed by immigrants among high school students in academic tracks (N = 1,734) in seven countries of the European Union (i.e., Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden). Due to the use of improved equivalent measures, it was the first study to conduct a reliable cross-national test of mediation and moderation effects of citizenship representations at the individual level. Results supported mediation rather than moderation. Overall, stronger national identification was associated with a more cultural citizenship representation, which was, in turn, associated with higher perceived threat. Stronger national identification was also associated with a less civic citizenship representation, which was, in turn, associated with lower perceived threat. Results suggest that, in order to positively affect the relations between national majority groups and immigrants, a civic representation of citizenship could be promoted. Further implications of our findings are discussed.
Reijerse, A., Vanbeselaere, N., Phalet, K., Fichera, G., & Duriez, B. (2013). The relationship between national identification and immigrant threat: The mediating role of citizenship representations. KULeuven: Internal report.